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Decommissioning of offshore man-made installations: Taking an ecosystem approach
European Marine Board (2017). Decommissioning of offshore man-made installations: Taking an ecosystem approach. EMB Policy Brief, 3. European Marine Board: Oostende. ISBN 978-94-920433-1-3. 8 pp.
Part of: EMB Policy Brief. European Marine Board: Ostend. ISSN 0778-3590, more

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Keywords
    Biodiversity; Decommissioning; Renewable energy
Author keywords
    oil and gas; platform; offshore wind farm; marine ecosystem; North-East Atlantic; rigs to reefs; ocean; offshore installations

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  • European Marine Board, more

Abstract
    Since the late 1960's major developments in energy industries have led to a multitude of man-made structures being installed offshore. In 2015 there were an estimated 1,357 oil and gas installations in the OSPAR maritime area (OSPAR Commission, 2015). Approximately 1,800 gridconnected offshore wind turbines are also installed in the North Sea while the total number of wind structures in EU waters as a whole is predicted to reach more than 9,000 by 2030 (European Wind Energy Association, 2015).

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