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A profitability study of CO2-EOR and subsequent CO2 storage in the North Sea under low oil market prices
Welkenhuysen, K.; Meyvis, B.; Piessens, K. (2017). A profitability study of CO2-EOR and subsequent CO2 storage in the North Sea under low oil market prices. Energy Procedia 114: 7060-7069. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1848
In: Energy Procedia. Curran/Elsevier: Red Hook. ISSN 1876-6102, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    CO2-enhaced oil recovery; CO2 geological storage; techno-economoicsimulation

Authors  Top 
  • Welkenhuysen, K., more
  • Meyvis, B., more
  • Piessens, K., more

Abstract
    A wide-scale application of CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) in North Sea oil fields can have many advantages, especially when followed by CO2 geological storage. Under the current low oil prices though, even maintaining basic oil production is challenging. A techno-economic assessment is made of the Claymore oil field with the PSS IV simulator, focusing on uncertainty and investment risk. For a stochastic oil price ranging between 10 and 70 €/bbl, a stochastic CO2 revenue of -10 to 70 €/t and stochastic reservoir parameters, an average NPV of almost 500 M€ is obtained with a 73% chance on a positive NPV if the investment is made. Disregarding uncertainty relating to the underground by fixing the stochastic reservoir parameters, leads remarkably, but also erroneously, to a lower average NPV. Results also show that geological uncertainty is an important factor for determining the economic threshold level of an EOR project, and a proper assessment of the real uncertainties can make the difference between profit and loss. In case of assuming a fixed CO2 revenue at 30 €/t, the probability of implementing EOR becomes higher, but the average NPV and project success rate are significantly lower, at 300 M€ and 63% respectively. This demonstrates that a fixed CO2 tax is not a generic CGS enabling solution. It not well-weighted, it can hamper the deployment of certain technologies. A phase of CO2 geological storage (CGS) after oil production becomes economically interesting from a CO2 revenue of 17€/t. If such a price level can be guaranteed, then continuation of CO2 injection can reduce investment risk for both the EOR and CGS investment, reduces the investment hurdle, and can be a catalyzer for large-scale and widespread CO2 storage in Europe.

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