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Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Count data
Humphries G R, Naveen R, Schwaller M, Che-Castaldo C, McDowall P, Schrimpf M, Lynch H J (2018): Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics (MAPPPD): Count data. v1.2. SCAR - AntOBIS. Dataset/Occurrence.

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Archived data
Availability: Creative Commons License This dataset is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

MAPPPD ((Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics) is a project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with Oceanites and the Lab of Dr. Heather Lynch at Stony Brook University. Data are only collected on the four species of penguin that breed on the Antarctic continent - Macaroni penguin, although breeding on some of the outlying islands, are not included here. more

Penguins are some of the most charismatic animals in the world and have captured the imaginations of news-makers, scientists, film producers and the general public. Beyond their general intrinsic value, they are considered important ecosystem indicators. That is to say, monitoring these beautiful species can tell us a lot about the general health of the Antarctic. This is because penguins are top predators, and changes (natural or anthropogenic) which influence the oceanography of the region or prey abundance, will ultimately be detected through changes in distribution or population size. The Antarctic is currently governed by nations which make up the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). Management strategies designed by the ATS rely on accurate and citable penguin population data in order to mitigate any anthropogenic impacts in the region. However, data on penguin populations are limited primarily due to the fact that most monitored colonies are nearby permanent research stations. This means that any remote populations are essentially ignored during planning processes. Due to advances in remote sensing, modeling and aerial imagery, it is now possible to obtain population estimates for these hard-to-reach sites. MAPPPD aims to deliver population data from four species of penguin to any interested party with the goal of helping support conservation decisions in the Antarctic. We use a combination of highly advanced remote sensing technologies, aerial imagery and field counts to estimate penguin abundance across the entire continent. All of the data in MAPPPD are open access to the general public, and the process is well documented in our white paper report.
Data on penguin abundance (number of breeding pairs or chicks) and occupancy (presence/absence) form the largest component of MAPPPD’s database. We classify the sources of abundance and occupancy data for MAPPPD into four categories. By far the largest source of abundance and occupancy data currently in theMAPPPD database is the publicly available published literature, which includes both peer-reviewed scientific literature as well as reports, management plans and other ‘grey’ literature. Data contributed through the literature may derive from direct ground surveys, aerial counts, satellite counts or counts from photographs, and the methods associated with each record are included with the data’s metadata. The Antarctic Site Inventory project and publications stemming from it (for example, Lynch and others 2013; Casanovas and others 2015) contribute 41.1% of all the population data in the MAPPPD database; the second biggest contributor is the Landcare Research dataset ( 12.3%.All other contributors combined make up the other 46.6% of surveys in MAPPPD for all species. The second category of data are those that are contributed directly to MAPPPD, which may include prepublished survey data or census data collected on an ad hoc or opportunistic basis by professional or citizen scientists in the region. While this is currently a minor component of MAPPPD, we expect this data stream to grow in future iterations of the web application. To ensure consistent quality and metadata for users, data contributed to MAPPPD will be vetted by MAPPPD collaborators before integration. This is a twofold process wherein we first ensure that data being submitted are representative of site-wide counts for the four penguin species in our database and, second, precision estimates are consistent with those already existing in the database. In this way, MAPPPD will serve as a data ‘clearinghouse’ for ad hoc data that may otherwise go unpublished and allows for proper credit to be established for data contributors. The third category of data are those derived from historical sources (for example, aerial photographs) that have not been included in previous census data compilations. Finally, when fully developed, MAPPPD will automatically ingest satellite data from NASA and other imagery providers, extract pixels classified as guano and incorporate those data into the MAPPPD database and, when appropriate, into models for current abundance and forecasts of future abundance. The distribution of survey data by species per year varies greatly and is primarily dominated by the Pygoscelis spp. penguins (Adélie, chinstrap and gentoo).While the number of surveys with chinstrap penguin data have remained roughly consistent over time, the number of surveys with Adélie and gentoo penguin data have decreased and increased, respectively, since the 1980s. This is probably due to an increase in visitation to gentoo penguin colonies on the Antarctic Peninsula, which represent a large and growing proportion of sites visited by passenger vessels (Bender and others 2016). Except for a large effort in 2009, emperor penguins represent the smallest component, reflecting both their smaller population size and the remoteness of their colonies (Fig. 1). However, we expect that as satellites are more frequently being used to estimate colony size for emperor penguins, the number of abundance estimates available for this species will increase in the next decade.

Biology > Birds
Marine, Terrestrial, Allopatric populations, Mapping, PS, Southern Ocean, Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844, Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841), Pygoscelis antarcticus (Forster, 1781), Pygoscelis papua (Forster, 1781)

Geographical coverage
PS, Southern Ocean [Marine Regions]

Temporal coverage
1 January 1895 - 1 January 2018

Taxonomic coverage
Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 [WoRMS]
Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) [WoRMS]
Pygoscelis antarcticus (Forster, 1781) [WoRMS]
Pygoscelis papua (Forster, 1781) [WoRMS]

Occurrence of biota

Black Bawks Data Science, moredata creator
Oceanites Inc, moredata creator
Stony Brook University; Department of Ecology and Evolution, moredata creator

Related datasets
Published in:
AntOBIS: Antarctic Ocean Biodiversity Information System, more

Dataset status: In Progress
Data type: Data
Data origin: Data collection
Metadatarecord created: 2018-12-04
Information last updated: 2019-04-10
All data in the Integrated Marine Information System (IMIS) is subject to the VLIZ privacy policy