Vacelet, J.; Boury-Esnault, N. (1995). Carnivorous sponges. Nature (Lond.) 373(6512): 333-335
In: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science. Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 0028-0836, more
Adaptations; Carnivores; Diets; Feeding behaviour; Food availability; Functional morphology; Marine invertebrates; Asbestopluma Topsent, 1901 [WoRMS]; Cladorhizidae Dendy, 1922 [WoRMS]; Porifera [WoRMS]; Mediterranean [Marine Regions]; Marine
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- Vacelet, J.
- Boury-Esnault, N., more
Extremely food-poor environments, such as the deep sea, place extraordinary demands on organisms with respect to feeding, resulting in modifications of the feeding strategies found in shallow waters. A general rule is that macrophagy becomes a better strategy than microphagous suspensions-feeding. The characteristics by which phyla are defined, nonetheless, remain unchanged in these adaptations. We present here an apparently unique example of a fundamentally different body plan, derived from a pre-existing phylum, occurring in deep-sea sponges. We demonstrate that the Cladorhizidae have evolved carnivory and capture small crustaceans by means of filaments provided with raised hook-shaped spicules. This adaptation to a food-poor deep-sea environment has resulted in the loss of the diagnostic characteristics of the phylum Porifera: an aquiferous system and choanocytes.