|Effects of North Sea oil and alkylphenols on biomarker responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)|
Sturve, J.; Hasselberg, L.; Fälth, H.; Celander, M.; Förlin, L. (2006). Effects of North Sea oil and alkylphenols on biomarker responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquat. Toxicol. 78(Suppl. 1): S73-S78
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
|Also published as |
- Sturve, J.; Hasselberg, L.; Fälth, H.; Celander, M.; Förlin, L. (2006). Effects of North Sea oil and alkylphenols on biomarker responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), in: Pampanin, D.M. et al. (Ed.) The Stavanger Workshop: Biological Effects of Environmental Pollution (BEEP) in marine coastal ecosystem: the Stavanger mesocosm exposure studies. Aquatic Toxicology, Special Issue 78(Suppl. 1): pp. S73-S78. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.02.019, more
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|Document type: Conference paper|
|Authors|| || Top |
- Sturve, J.
- Hasselberg, L.
- Fälth, H.
A consequence of oil drilling at sea is the release of produced water contaminated with e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols. In the present study, juvenile Atlantic cod were exposed to North Sea oil, nonylphenol and a combination of the North Sea oil and an alkylphenol mixture in a flow-through system. A suite of hepatic biomarkers were analysed. Exposure to North Sea oil resulted in strong induction of CYP1A protein levels and EROD activities. Exposure to nonylphenol, on the other hand, resulted in decreased CYP1A levels and EROD activities. Thus, nonylphenol appears to down-regulate CYP1A expression in Atlantic cod. Combined exposure to North Sea oil with an alkylphenol mixture resulted in lower EROD induction, compared to that in fish exposed to North Sea oil alone. This difference was not statistically significant, but still we believe that the alkylphenols have inhibited CYP1A activities in the fish which may have compromised CYP1A mediated metabolism of other xenobiotics, including PAH. CYP3A protein levels were lower, compared to controls, in fish exposed to nonylphenol and the combination of North Sea oil and alkylphenol mixture. In contrast, the oil alone had no effect on CYP3A protein content. North Sea oil exposure, alone or in combination with alkylphenols, caused oxidative stress observed as elevated levels of GSSG content and GR and CAT activities. Interestingly, exposure to nonylphenol resulted in a marked depletion of total glutathione levels. This apparent depletion may be a consequence of increased conjugation of glutathione to nonylphenol followed by excretion. An increase in conjugation enzyme GST activity was observed in the nonylphenol exposed group, although the difference was not significant. No sign of oxidative damage, measured as lipid peroxidation, was observed in any of the exposures experiments. This study suggests that North Sea oil may lead to oxidative stress and altered CYP1A and CYP3A expression. Alkylphenols, present in produced water, resulted in decreased CYP1A and CYP3A protein expression in Atlantic cod.