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Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas
Lotze, H.K.; Lenihan, H.S.; Bourque, B.J.; Bradbury, R.H.; Cooke, R.G.; Kay, M.C.; Kidwell, S.M.; Kirby, M.X.; Peterson, C.H.; Jackson, J.B.C. (2006). Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science (Wash.) 312(5781): 1806-1809
In: Science (Washington). American Association for the Advancement of Science: New York, N.Y. ISSN 0036-8075, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Lotze, H.K.
  • Lenihan, H.S.
  • Bourque, B.J.
  • Bradbury, R.H.
  • Cooke, R.G.
  • Kay, M.C.
  • Kidwell, S.M.
  • Kirby, M.X.
  • Peterson, C.H.
  • Jackson, J.B.C.

Abstract
    Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function. Our results provide detailed historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation.

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