|Toxicity of water soluble fractions of petroleum oils on larvae of crabs|
Donahue, W.H.; Welch, M.F.; Lee, W.Y.; Nicol, J.A.C. (1977). Toxicity of water soluble fractions of petroleum oils on larvae of crabs, in: Giam, C.S. (Ed.) Pollutant effects on marine organisms. pp. 77-95
In: Giam, C.S. (Ed.) (1977). Pollutant effects on marine organisms. Lexington Books: Lexington. ISBN 0-669-01518-0. XI, 215 pp., more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Donahue, W.H.
- Welch, M.F.
- Lee, W.Y.
- Nicol, J.A.C.
Survival of larvae of six species of crab in water soluble fractions (WSF) of petroleum oils was investigated: (1) stone crab Menippe mercenaria, (2) spider crab Libinia dubia, (3) blue crab Callinectes sapidus, (4) calico crab hepatus ephaliticus, (5) fiddler crab Uca panaceae, and (6) striped hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus. Survival of stone crab zoeae was reduced at a concentration of 4% (0.6 ppm) WSF after two days. Mortality increased with concentration and duration of exposure; at the end of three days all larvae were dead in a 20% solution (3 ppm). Comparable results were found with hermit crabs after longer intervals. The extracts slowed development and retarded molting of spider crab larvae, effects appearing at 4% (0.6 ppm), and development to young crabs did not occur in 10% extract (1.5 ppm). In 24-hour experiments, petroleum derivatives, fuel oil, and Bunker C were more toxic than crude oils. Sensitivities of species varied; blue and fiddler crabs were more resistant than stone crab zoeae.