|The burrowing sponges of Bermuda|
Ruetzler, K. (1974). The burrowing sponges of Bermuda. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 165: 1-32
In: Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington,. ISSN 0081-0282, more
Geographical distribution; New species; Organism morphology; Taxonomy; Cliona amplicavata Rützler, 1974 [WoRMS]; Cliona flavifodina Rützler, 1974 [WoRMS]; Cliona paucispina Rützler, 1974 [WoRMS]; Clionidae d'Orbigny, 1851 [WoRMS]; ANW, Bermuda [Marine Regions]; Marine
The systematics and distribution of 8 spp of burrowing sponges found on the Bermuda platform are discussed. These sponges excavate limestone substrata to form burrows in which they live, thus participating in processes of erosion and sedimentation. 7 spp belong to Cliona (Clionidae): C.caribbaea Carter, C.flavifodina sp.n., C.paucispina sp.n., C.vermifera Hancock, C.dioryssa (Laubenfels), new combination, C.lampa Laubenfels, and C.amplicavata sp.n.; one sp belongs to Spheciospongia (Spirastrellidae): S.othella Laubenfels. In addition to the 3 new spp, two sponges are new records for Bermuda: C.caribbaea (not sensu Verrill, 1907, and Laubenfels, 1950) and C.vermifera. Among the C.lampa population 3 phenotypic forms are distinguished: formae lampa, occulta, and flavida. Appearance of live and preserved specimens, internal structure, spicules, and excavations are described in detail to permit field identification by nonspecialists. Scanning electron photomicrographs are used to clarify the fine structure of microscleres.