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Postembryonic morphology in Epsilonematidae, with a discussion on the variability of caudal gland outlets
Raes, M.; Decraemer, W.; Vanreusel, A. (2006). Postembryonic morphology in Epsilonematidae, with a discussion on the variability of caudal gland outlets. J. Nematol. 38(1): 97-118
In: Journal of Nematology. Society of Nematologists: College Park, MD, etc.. ISSN 0022-300X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 286936 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    New species; Taxonomy; Akanthepsilonema sinecornibus Raes, Decraemer & Vanreusel, 2006 [WoRMS]; Nematoda [WoRMS]; Triepsilonema tripapillata Decraemer, 1982 [WoRMS]; ANE, Porcupine Seabight [Marine Regions]; Marine
Author keywords
    Akanthepsilonema sinecornibus; caudal glands; cold-water corals;epsilonematids; Glochinema trispinatum; ontogeny; Porcupine; Seabight;taxonomy; Triepsilonema tripapillata

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Abstract
    A new species of Akanthepsilonema and the first-stage juvenile of Glochinema trispinatum are described. Furthermore, additional morphological information is provided for Triepsilonema tripapillata. Animals originate from a cold-water coral degradation zone in the Porcupine Seabight area (North-East Atlantic Ocean). Akanthepsilonema sinecornibus sp. n. differs from A. helleouetae in number of body annules, sexual dimorphism in amphid size, absence of copulatory thorns in males, absence of large spines and horns, shape of the copulatory apparatus, and position of ambulatory setae relative to vulva in females. The genus diagnosis for Akanthepsilonema is adjusted to incorporate the new species. Akanthepsilonema mainly differs froth every other genus in the family by the combination of six rows of ambulatory setae situated around the vulva in females and eight subcephalic setae not displaced toward the anterior part of the head capsule. Small differences between the Papua New Guinea and the Porcupine Seabight populations of T. tripapillata indicate minimal intraspecific variability. Second-stage juveniles from Papua New Guinea have two rows of three ambulatory setae, whereas Porcupine Seabight specimens have two rows of four ambulatory setae. First- and fourth-stage juveniles of T. tripapillata are described for the first time. Literature data and personal observations showed that the molting of first-stage juveniles into second-stage juveniles and of third-stage juveniles into fourth-stage juveniles involves a decrease in the number of body rings, resulting in a loss of flexibility which is possibly compensated for by the development (I-II) or the doubling of the number of rows (III-IV) of ambulatory setae. This decrease is also linked with the formation of the head capsule and the smooth tail tip, although intergeneric variability is evident. The molting of second-stage juveniles into third-stage juveniles and of fourth-stage,juveniles into adults is also subject to intergeneric variability. The variability in the number and orientation of caudal gland outlets among different nematode taxa is discussed. The presence of separate outlets for the caudal glands seems to be widespread within the family Epsilonematidae and has also been observed in various other, unrelated taxa of free-living aquatic nematodes, although their arrangement in Epsilonematidae is opposite. This aberrant arrangement is probably related to the aberrant locomotory pattern in this family.

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