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Triphenyltin alters androgen metabolism in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus
Lavado, R.; Sugni, M.; Candia Carnevali, M.D.; Porte, C. (2006). Triphenyltin alters androgen metabolism in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Aquat. Toxicol. 79(3): 247-256. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.06.012
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Lavado, R.
  • Sugni, M.
  • Candia Carnevali, M.D.
  • Porte, C.

Abstract
    Androgen metabolism (androstenedione and testosterone) has been assessed in the digestive tube and gonads of the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus exposed to different concentrations of the biocide triphenyltin (TPT) in a semi-static water regime for 4 weeks. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis and metabolism of androgens, namely 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs), 3β-HSDs, 5α-reductases, P450-aromatase, palmitoyl-CoA:testosterone acyltransferases (ATAT) and testosterone sulfotransferases (SULT), were investigated in digestive tube and/or gonads of control and TPT-exposed specimens in an attempt to see whether androgen metabolism was altered by exposure. In agreement with previous data for vertebrates, exposure to TPT led to a concentration dependent decrease of P450-aromatase that was statistically significant at the highest TPT concentration tested (225 ng/L). Additionally, increased metabolism of testosterone to form dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol was observed, suggesting increased 5α-reductase activity in the gonads of TPT-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to TPT induced testosterone conjugating activities in organisms exposed to medium (SULT) and high (ATAT and SULT) TPT concentrations. Despite the changes of androgen metabolizing enzymes, testosterone levels in gonads remained rather stable. In contrast, an increase in testosterone and a concomitant decrease in estradiol were observed in the coelomic fluid of TPT-exposed organisms. Overall, the data indicate the ability of TPT to modulate androgen metabolism and circulating steroid levels in P. lividus and suggest the existence of regulatory mechanisms to maintain stable endogenous levels of testosterone in gonads. This study also contributes to a better knowledge of echinoderm endocrinology.

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