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Geomechanical behaviour of frozen soil and AGF safe constraint method
Rijkers, R.H.B.; de Lange, G.; Naaktgeboren, N.M. (2003). Geomechanical behaviour of frozen soil and AGF safe constraint method, in: Saveur, J. (Ed.) Reclaiming the Underground Space: proceedings of the ITA World Tunneling Congress, Amsterdam 2003. pp. 1109-1112
In: Saveur, J. (Ed.) (2003). Reclaiming the Underground Space: proceedings of the ITA World Tunneling Congress, Amsterdam 2003. CRC Press: [s.l.]. ISBN 9789058095428. 1212 pp., more

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Keywords
    Marine; Brackish water

Authors  Top 
  • Rijkers, R.H.B.
  • de Lange, G.
  • Naaktgeboren, N.M.

Abstract
    The technique of artificial ground freezing (AGF) is used to increase temporarily the strength of soils to ensure water-tightness and stable ground conditions. Several risks due to frost heave (tunnel deformation as the consequence of soil dilatancy) during freezing time have been identified before the project started. These risks have been monitored and studied during construction of the transverse (connecting) tunnels of the Westerscheldetunnel. Practical recommendations and laboratory experiments have resulted in improvement of the AGF-method and its application in tunnel construction.

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