|Hexabromocyclododecane in marine species from the western Scheldt Estuary: diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation|
Janák, K.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Becher, G. (2006). Hexabromocyclododecane in marine species from the western Scheldt Estuary: diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation, in: Voorspoels, S. Environmental distribution of brominated flame retardants in Belgium = Verspreiding van gebromeerde vlamvertragers in het Belgische milieu. pp. 229-236
In: Voorspoels, S. (2006). Environmental distribution of brominated flame retardants in Belgium = Verspreiding van gebromeerde vlamvertragers in het Belgische milieu. PhD Thesis. Universiteit Antwerpen: Antwerpen. ISBN 90-5728-060-4. XVII, 263 pp., more
|Also published as |
- Janák, K.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Becher, G. (2005). Hexabromocyclododecane in marine species from the western Scheldt Estuary: diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(7): 1987-1994. hdl.handle.net/10.1021/es0484909, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Janák, K.
- Covaci, A., more
- Voorspoels, S., more
- Becher, G.
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a widely used brominated flame retardant, which is increasingly reported in the environment. Here, we report on the diastereomeric and, for the first time, on the enantiomeric composition of HBCD in muscle and liver of several fish species caught in the Western Scheldt Estuary (The Netherlands). The total HBCD content (sum of alfa-, béta- and gamma-diastereoisomers), as well as the distribution of diastereoisomers and enantiomers, varied between the species. The levels of total HBCD (9-1110 ng/g lipid weight) found in fish tissues were higher than those measured in fish from European rivers with no known point sources of HBCD but lower than in fish samples collected near factories producing or using HBCD. The concentrations of total HBCD expressed on a lipid weight basis were higher in liver than in muscle for bib and whiting, while in sole, HBCD had no preferential distribution between the tissues. A similar pattern for liver and muscle distribution was already observed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these species. The alfa-HBCD diastereoisomer was most abundant in all fish samples with a higher contribution to the total HBCD levels in liver compared to muscle for bib and whiting. The gamma-HBCD diastereoisomer accumulated less in liver than in muscle of sole, bib, and whiting. For the first time, enantiomer fractions were determined for HBCD diastereoisomers in liver of three fish species and in muscle of two fish species. A significant enrichment of the (+) alfa-HBCD enantiomer was found in whiting and bib liver samples. A high enantioselectivity has also been seen for the gamma-HBCD diastereoisomer in whiting liver.