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Systematic revision of the western Atlantic file clams, Lima and Ctenoides (Bivalvia : Limoida : Limidae)
Mikkelsen, P.M.; Bieler, R. (2003). Systematic revision of the western Atlantic file clams, Lima and Ctenoides (Bivalvia : Limoida : Limidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17(5): 667-710
In: Invertebrate Systematics. CSIRO Publishing (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization): Melbourne. ISSN 1445-5226, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Document type: Review


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  • Mikkelsen, P.M.
  • Bieler, R.

    Marine file clams of family Limidae d'Orbigny, 1846 (+ Radulidae Adams & Adams), characterised by their often colourful mantle and pallial tentacles and by swimming behaviour, are commonly collected and illustrated bivalves. Based on new material from an extensive Florida Keys biodiversity survey plus museum and literature data, western Atlantic species of Lima Bruguière, 1797 (+ Mantellum Röding; Radula Mörch; Limaria Rafinesque; Austrolima Iredale; Meotolima Oyama) and Ctenoides Mörch, 1853 (+ Divaricolima Rovereto) are revised. Lima includes L. marioni Fischer, 1882 (+ L. lata Smith; lectotype selected), and L. caribaea d'Orbigny, 1842 (lectotype selected), distinguished from eastern Atlantic L. lima (Linné) and other species by shell rib number. Ctenoides includes C. scaber (Born, 1778) (+ Ostrea glacialis Gmelin; L. asperula Lamarck; Limaria asperula Link), C. mitis (Lamarck, 1807) (+ L. tenera Sowerby; L. floridana Olsson & Harbison), C. planulatus (Dall, 1886) (lectotype selected), C. sanctipauli Stuardo, 1982, and C. miamiensis, C. obliquus, and C. vokesi, spp. nov. Species distinctions rely mainly on shell characters, although body colour and ornamentation are confirming in some cases. Diagnostic shell characters at the genus-level are supported by new anatomical characters of the gut and tentacles. Known anatomical data for worldwide Lima and Ctenoides species are summarised within a phylogenetic context.

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