|Fish flour: technical developments in Canada|
Fougère, H. (1962). Fish flour: technical developments in Canada, in: Heen, E. et al. Fish in nutrition. pp. 413-415
In: Heen, E.; Kreuzer, R. (1962). Fish in nutrition. Fishing News (Books): London. XXIII, 447 pp., more
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VLIZ: Biological Resources 
Fish flour investigations in Canada were initiated at the Halifax Technological Station of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada in 1955. Two objectives were in sight: a product of high quality protein for human consumption and the efficient utilization of fish offal resulting from filleting plant operations. Other countries as well have developed processes for manufacturing fish flour, the basic principle being the same, namely solvent extraction 1. The isopropanol process involves: (a) Acid treatment of offal with polyphosphoric acid at pH 5.5 to hydrolyse the collagens. (b) Solvent extraction of the presscake. 2. Studies of solvent extraction-experimental procedure and data. Systematic investigations of the efficiency of acetone and isopro- panol as solvents are reported, ethyl alcohol and trichlorethylene being also considered. It was subsequently observed that the acid treatment of offal presented the disadvantages of removing water soluble proteins and thus reduced the yield of the final product. Guttmann (Halifax) undertook to demonstrate this fact by presenting data on the loss of protein nitrogen as well as of the individual amino acids. Furthermore, this investigation led to a simplified process, giving a higher yield, and a method for preserving the raw material for subsequent processing. 3. Nutritional. It has been demonstrated that fish flour (isopropanol process) is equally as good as egg albumin and is nutritionally more complete than casein.4. Utilization. Although fish flour is not manufactured commercially in Canada some home economists are experimenting with it by adding it to wheat flour in baking bread, biscuits and fortifying cereals. It was thought that cereal flours, of which Canada has yearly surpluses, when mixed with fish offal, might have some merit. One product in particular, 30 per cent protein, was obtained. It is easily prepared, dries easily, requires no solvent extraction and its taste and odour are quite acceptable. In addition, apple presscake, a by-product of the apple juice industry in Nova Scotia, when added to fish offal with vegetable flour has the property of masking fishy tastes and odours. A suggestion follows that dry pineapple presscake which should be abundant in countries close to those where the need for more protein is emphasized, could serve a similar useful purpose.