|Fish flour: technical developments in Scandinavia|
Bakken, K. (1962). Fish flour: technical developments in Scandinavia, in: Heen, E. et al. Fish in nutrition. pp. 419-424
In: Heen, E.; Kreuzer, R. (1962). Fish in nutrition. Fishing News (Books): London. XXIII, 447 pp., more
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VLIZ: Biological Resources 
In the Scandinavian countries there has always been great interest in the production of fish meal which might be used for human consumption. Many different processes have been developed, both for the production of fish meal and fish flour, but none of these has had a long life due to the inability to create a market for the products. A few of the projects will be described here. The Norwegian Fisheries Research Institute has built a pilot plant for the production of fish flour, and this will also be further described. The process adopted is based on simultaneous water removal and extraction with ethanol. The extraction is performed in three stages. and the miscella is separated from the solids after each stage by the use of screw presses (expellers). Although the extraction takes place at ordinary room temperatures, the laboratory experiments showed that from pure fish meat might be produced an entirely neutral flour, which also had good storing qualities. In Sweden a factory for the production of fish flour has been built by the firm "Astra". A short description of the process is given.