|Fish flour: technological developments in South Africa|
Dreosti, G.M. (1962). Fish flour: technological developments in South Africa, in: Heen, E. et al. Fish in nutrition. pp. 425-431
In: Heen, E.; Kreuzer, R. (1962). Fish in nutrition. Fishing News (Books): London. XXIII, 447 pp., more
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VLIZ: Biological Resources 
In 1937, South African investigations were begun to find a tasteless, odourless fish flour for enriching cereal products for human consumption. The Fishing Industry Research Institute (FIRI) developed a suitable process. Hake, maasbanker and pilchard are successful raw materials. Even year-old fish meal was found useful for fully acceptable fish flour. The highest yield is obtained by extracting dry, norrnal fish meal with ethyl alcohol having as low a moisture content as is conveniently possible. Using batch extraction, it was found the finer fish meal is ground, the more rapid is the extraction when it is shaken with alcohol. In percolation, unground meal was found preferable. Methods of recovering the used solvent and using the residue have been developed. The paper gives specifications for fish flour production and analytical data. The protein fraction of FIRI fish flour is usually high quality. If the level of supplementation is sufficiently high, fish flour can increase the assimilable protein content of bread to an appreciable extent. Rats are able to utilize fish flour's mineral component. However, the potassium content was often found too low to afford normal growth when fish flour provided the sole rnineral source in the diet. Formulae based on skimmed milkpowder or casein have been found uniformly satisfactory for cure of kwashiorkor and maintenance of cure in convalescent infants. Experiments to date on diets containing 10 or 40 % FIRI fish flour indicate the fish flour samples had characteristics which made them unsuitable for this purpose. The use of fish flour to prevent kwashiorkor has not yet been investigated.