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The development of an aquatic bivalve model: Evaluating the toxic effects on gametogenesis following 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) exposure in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)
Wintermyer, M.L.; Cooper, K.R. (2007). The development of an aquatic bivalve model: Evaluating the toxic effects on gametogenesis following 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) exposure in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Aquat. Toxicol. 81(1): 10-26. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.10.005
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Gametogenesis; Histopathology; Models; Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Wintermyer, M.L.
  • Cooper, K.R.

Abstract
    The objective of this study is to develop a gametogenesis protocol to serve as a model for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals on oogenesis and spermatogenesis in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was selected as a “proof of principle” toxicant to examine developmental toxicity in this invertebrate system. The studies were designed to: (1) test the model using 2,3,7,8-TCDD and (2) to use histopathological evaluations to characterize the effects on oocyte and sperm development during stages of gametogenesis. 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 10 pg/g resulted in significant histopathological gonadal lesions by day 14 of gametogenesis in both female and male oysters. These lesions resulted in complete inhibition of gonadogenesis. Studies also showed that a total body dose of 2 and 10 pg/g 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused adverse responses resulting in abnormal gametogenesis in female and male oysters, respectively, such as: (1) incomplete oocyte division, (2) inhibition of oocyte growth and maturation, (3) unsynchronized sperm development, and (4) inhibition of spermatogenesis. The eastern oyster is one of the most responsive invertebrate models tested to date for reproductive effects of chemicals. Therefore, the eastern oyster can be used as a sensitive toxicological model for examining the effects of dioxin-like compounds and other xenobiotics on gametogenesis. The reported studies show that environmentally relevant concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2–10 pg/g) have a significant adverse effect on oyster gametogenesis.

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