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Effects of the herbicide 2,4-D on the growth of nine aquatic macrophytes
Belgers, J.D.M.; Van Lieverloo, R.J.; Van der Pas, L.J.T.; Van den Brink, P.J. (2007). Effects of the herbicide 2,4-D on the growth of nine aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 86(3): 260-268. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.11.002
In: Aquatic Botany. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0304-3770, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Aquatic plants; Herbicides; Hormesis; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Risks; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Belgers, J.D.M.
  • Van Lieverloo, R.J.
  • Van der Pas, L.J.T.
  • Van den Brink, P.J.

Abstract
    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on nine submersed macrophyte species. The first objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of various endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests. A second objective was to investigate the implications of hormesis in the risk assessment of 2,4-D. 2,4-D was applied in concentrations ranging from 10 to 3000 μg L−1. Endpoints determined 4 weeks after the start of the treatment were based on shoot and root growth in water. The EC50s were calculated using models excluding and including a parameter describing hormesis. Results indicated that the total length of the roots can be regarded as a sensitive endpoint for the response of a macrophyte to 2,4-D. For the tested rooted macrophyte species, the EC50 values for the length and number of the roots ranged from 92 to 997 and from 112 to 1807 μg L−1, respectively. At low concentrations (10 and 30 μg L−1), stimulation of some of the endpoints (hormesis) was found for several of the species. Although hormesis may have ecological implications, its importance for the ecological risk assessment of 2,4-D in this study was limited.

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