|The socio-economic costs and benefits of coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation|
Spurgeon, J. (1998). The socio-economic costs and benefits of coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37(8-12): 373-382
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Aquatic habitats; Coastal waters; Coastal zone; Coastal zone management; Coral reefs; Costs; Economics; Ecosystem management; Environmental protection; Estuaries; Habitat; Habitat improvement; Mangrove swamps; Marine environment; Nature conservation; Reefs; Restoration; Salt marshes; Sea grass; Socioeconomic aspects; Socioeconomics; Sociological aspects; Marine
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the merits and limitations of using an economics based approach to assess and implement initiatives for coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation. A review of the literature indicates that habitat rehabilitation/creation costs vary widely between and within ecosystems. For coral reefs, costs range from US$ 10,000 to 6.5 million/hectare (ha); for mangroves US$ 3000-510,000/ha; for sea-grasses US$ 9000-680,000/ha and for saltmarshes US$ 2000-160,000/ha. A review of the economic benefits derived from various coastal habitats based on a 'Total Economic Value' approach (i.e. accounting for direct and indirect uses, and 'non-uses') reveals that many thousands of US$ per hectare could ultimately accrue from their rehabilitation/creation. The paper concludes that despite its limitations, the 'benefit-cost analysis' framework can play an important role both in assessing the justification of coastal habitat rehabilitation/creation initiatives, and by helping to improve the overall effectiveness of such initiatives.