|Sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate resting eggs to SeaKleen® (menadione): a test of potential ballast tank treatment options|
Raikow, D.F.; Reid, D.F.; Maynard, E.E.; Landrum, P.F. (2006). Sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate resting eggs to SeaKleen® (menadione): a test of potential ballast tank treatment options. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(2): 552-559
In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Setac Press: New York. ISSN 0730-7268, more
Ballast; Ballast tanks; Introduced species; Pest control; Resting eggs; Marine
|Authors|| || Top |
- Raikow, D.F.
- Reid, D.F.
- Maynard, E.E.
- Landrum, P.F.
The introduction of aquatic species in resting life stages by the release of ballast water is a less well-known but potentially important invasive species vector. Best-management practices designed to minimize transport of ballast water cannot eliminate this threat, because residual water and sediment are retained in ballast tanks after draining. To evaluate the potential efficacy of chemical treatment of residual material in ship ballast tanks, the present study examined the acute toxicity of the proposed biocide SeaKleen (menadione; Garnett, Watkinsville, GA, USA) on resting eggs of Brachionus plicatilis (a marine rotifer), a freshwater copepod, Daphnia mendotae (a freshwater cladoceran), and Artemia sp. (a marine brine shrimp). SeaKleen was toxic to resting eggs of all taxa. Daphnia mendotae resting eggs encased in protective ephippia were the least sensitive, as indicated by a 24-h lethal concentration of toxicant to 90% of organisms of 8.7 mg/L (95% confidence interval, 0.1 mg/L). SeaKleen induced teratogenic effects in D. mendotae and Artemia sp. Exposure to sunlight quickly degraded SeaKleen, which lost all toxicity after 72 h outdoors. SeaKleen increased in toxicity slightly after 72 h in darkness. Burial of D. mendotae ephippia in natural lake sediment reduced SeaKleen toxicity by a factor of 20. Reduced toxicity in the presence of sediment raises serious doubts as to the potential for this, or any, chemical biocide to kill aquatic invertebrate resting stages buried in sediment retained in ship ballast tanks.