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Phylogeography of the Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina species complex: evidence for cosmopolitanism, restricted gene flow, recent range expansions and accelerated evolution
Derycke, S.; Remerie, T.; Vierstraete, A.; Vanfleteren, J.; Vincx, M.; Moens, T. (2007). Phylogeography of the Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina species complex: evidence for cosmopolitanism, restricted gene flow, recent range expansions and accelerated evolution, in: Derycke, S. Patronen en processen in de genetische structuur van twee mariene nemarodentaxa Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina and Halomonhystera disjuncta): een moleculaire, morfologische en experimentele benadering = Patterns and processes in the genetic structure of two marine nematode taxa (Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina and Halomonhystera disjuncta): a molecular, morphology and experimental approach. pp. 179-205
In: Derycke, S. (2007). Patronen en processen in de genetische structuur van twee mariene nemarodentaxa Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina and Halomonhystera disjuncta): een moleculaire, morfologische en experimentele benadering = Patterns and processes in the genetic structure of two marine nematode taxa (Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina and Halomonhystera disjuncta): a molecular, morphology and experimental approach. PhD Thesis. Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Wetenschappen: Gent. X, 252 pp., more

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Keywords
    Biogeography; Cosmopolite species; Evolution; Genetic drift; Phylogeny; Pellioditis marina (Bastian, 1865) [WoRMS]; Marine

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Abstract
    The nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina has a worldwide distribution despite presumably low dispersal abilities. Recent studies on a local scale have illustrated that R. (P.) marina actually consists of several cryptic species which questions its true cosmopolitan distribution. We performed a phylogeographic study to identify micro- and macro-evolutionary processes shaping population structuring and speciation in the R. (P.) marina species complex. The mitochondrial COI gene was screened with the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism method (SSCP) in 1292 specimens collected from decomposing macroalgae along the coasts of Western Europe, NE America, Mexico, South Africa and Australia. We found evidence for eleven cryptic species within R. (P.) marina that were sympatrically distributed. A strong genetic structuring was observed in all species and a genetic break was observed around the British Isles. A historical signature was present in species PmII showing evidence for two postglacial, northwards orientated expansions and for restricted gene flow with occasional long-distance dispersal. Our data also pointed to a contact zone in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. We found evidence for a true cosmopolitan distribution of nematode species due to occasional long-distance dispersal. In addition, an accelerated COI mutation rate was suggested for R. (P.) marina, which was about ten times higher than the generally applied molecular clock of 2 %. We further hypothesize that the cryptic radiation in R. (P.) marina is largely the result of allopatric speciation, and that the contemporary sympatric distribution results from occasional long-distance dispersal.

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