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Model of remote-sensing reflectance including bidirectional effects for case 1 and case 2 waters
Park, Y.; Ruddick, K. (2005). Model of remote-sensing reflectance including bidirectional effects for case 1 and case 2 waters. Appl. Opt. 44(7-1): 1236-1249
In: Applied Optics. Optical Society of America: Easton. ISSN 0003-6935, more
Peer reviewed article

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 119275 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Models; Reflectance; Remote sensing; Marine

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  • BELCOLOUR - Optical remote sensing of coastal waters, more

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Abstract
    A remote-sensing reflectance model based on a lookup table is proposed for use in analyzing satellite ocean color data in both case 1 and case 2 waters. The model coefficients are tabulated for grid values of three angles -solar zenith, sensor zenith, and relative azimuth- to take account of directional variation. This model also requires, as input, a phase function parameter defined by the contribution of suspended particles to the backscattering coefficient. The model is generated from radiative transfer simulations for a wide range of inherent optical properties that cover both case 1 and 2 waters. The model uncertainty that is due to phase function variability is significantly reduced from that in conventional models. Bidirectional variation of reflectance is described and explained for a variety of cases. The effects of wind speed and cloud cover on bidirectional variation are also considered, including those for the fully overcast case in which angular variation can still be considerable (~10%). The implications for seaborne validation of satellite-derived water-leaving reflectance are discussed.

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