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Cadmium distribution and its effects on molybdate-containing hydroxylases in Phragmites australis
Jiang, X.; Wang, C. (2007). Cadmium distribution and its effects on molybdate-containing hydroxylases in Phragmites australis. Aquat. Bot. 86(4): 353-360. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.01.002
In: Aquatic Botany. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0304-3770, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Cadmium; Chemical pollution; Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Jiang, X.
  • Wang, C.

Abstract
    The influence of cadmium (Cd) on physiological and biochemical parameters was studied to elucidate the mechanism of Cd resistance in Phragmites australis. Cadmium concentrations in roots, stems and leaves increased with exogenous Cd concentration, but Cd content in roots was much higher than in shoots. X-ray microanalysis was used to reveal compartments in which Cd accumulated in root cortex. Cadmium concentrations followed a gradient with the sequence: intercellular space > cell wall > vacuole > cytoplasm, indicating that most Cd was immobilized in the apoplast or sequestered into the vacuolar lumen. Sequential extraction of various Cd chelates revealed that more than half of extractable Cd was bound to proteins, whereas 26% was bound to organic acids. Cd-binding protein fractions were found in the roots after gel filtration chromatography, among which a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 14 kDa bound Cd most avidly. One newly synthesized polypeptide of low molecular mass (1 kDa) appeared under Cd pollution, whereas a prominent fraction of 72 kDa disappeared. Four aldehyde oxidase (AO) isoenzyme activities increased significantly in roots under Cd pollution. Cd stress also enhanced xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities in roots. Two AO polypeptides of different molecular sizes were detected in the roots by Western blot assay. The abundance of the 160 kDa subunit correlated with Cd stress, but the amount of the 90 kDa polypeptide did not change under Cd treatment. Enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) contents were observed in roots of P. australis exposed to Cd. The involvement of Cd distribution in plant tissues and subcellular compartments and of AO and XDH enzymatic activities in the acclimation mechanism of P. australis to Cd pollution is discussed herein.

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