|Physics of underwater photography|
Thorndike, E.M. (1967). Physics of underwater photography, in: Hersey, J.B. (Ed.) Deep-sea photography. pp. 43-45
In: Hersey, J.B. (Ed.) (1967). Deep-sea photography. The John Hopkins Oceanographic Studies, 3. The John Hopkins Press: Baltimore. 310 pp., more
In: The John Hopkins Oceanographic Studies, more
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In underwater photography, light is transmitted through water and through a window into air where the camera is located. Thus, knowledge of the refractive index, dispersion, absorption, and scattering of the water is needed for the design of an underwater camera system and for the evaluation of its capabilities. Refractive index and dispersion must be known, for they determine the bending of light rays of different colors on passage from water into air. Knowledge of the absorption and scattering of the water is essential for the evaluation of the losses and redirection of the light beam as it traverses the part of the path that is in water. The brief discussion of these factors presented in this chapter is intended to provide a background for the discussions of camera designs and uses which follow.