|Sustainable use of marine resources: cultivation of sponges|
Brümmer, F.; Nickel, M. (2003). Sustainable use of marine resources: cultivation of sponges, in: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) Sponges (Porifera). Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology, : pp. 143-162
In: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) (2003). Sponges (Porifera). Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 3-540-00968-X. 258 pp., more
In: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1611-6119, more
Biological resources; Sponge culture; Marine
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Among all metazoan phyla, sponges are known to produce the largest number of bioactive compounds, some of them metabolites with human therapeutic value. Therefore, an increasing interest in basic cell biology research up to biochemical engineering can be observed aiming at the production of sponge metabolites under completely controlled conditions. One major obstacle is the limited availability of larger quantities of defined sponge material--the so-called supply problem. In this chapter, different approaches used so far for producing sponge biomass by in situ aquaculture as well as some significant progress in the maintenance of sponges in aquaria are reviewed. These approaches are mainly based on old methods for producing commercial bath sponges as well as on experience in maintaining sponges in public aquaria and on the usage of artificial substrates for a natural-like colonization structure. In recent years, great efforts have been made to set up in vitro culture systems for the cultivation of sponge cells. One of the major advantages of cell cultures is the possibility to control and manipulate the cultivation conditions depending on the sponge species and the target metabolite. Up to now, monolayer cultures of dissociated sponge cells have been shown in a few cases to produce the desired product. However, to date, no continuously growing sponge cell line has been established. Organotypic culture systems, which maintain or mimic the natural tissue structure, have been developed in recent years and demonstrate a promising way towards the biotechnology of sponges. Successful attempts to produce sponge metabolites using the three-dimensional growing primmorphs are given. The use of sponge fragments, another three-dimensional approach, has reappeared and has also been successfully used as an in vitro approach as well as for the biotechnological production of boreal sponge tissue.