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Approaches for a sustainable use of the bioactive potential in sponges: analysis of gene clusters, differential display of mRNA and DNA chips
Breter, H.-J.; Grebenjuk, V.A.; Skorokhod, A.; Müller, W.E.G. (2003). Approaches for a sustainable use of the bioactive potential in sponges: analysis of gene clusters, differential display of mRNA and DNA chips, in: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) Sponges (Porifera). Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology, : pp. 199-230
In: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) (2003). Sponges (Porifera). Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 3-540-00968-X. 258 pp., more
In: Müller, W.E.G. (Ed.) Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Marine Molecular Biotechnology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 1611-6119, more

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Keywords
    Bioactive compounds; Genes; Sponges; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Breter, H.-J.
  • Grebenjuk, V.A.
  • Skorokhod, A.
  • Müller, W.E.G.

Abstract
    In recent years, analyses of the genome organization of marine sponges have begun that have led to the elucidation of selected genes and gene arrangements that exist in gene clusters (e.g. the receptor tyrosine kinase cluster and the allograft inflammatory factor cluster). Most of these studies were performed with the demosponge Suberites domuncula; but Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae), Aphrocallistes vastus (Hexactinellida) and Sycon raphanus (Calcarea) were also investigated. Both S. domuncula and G. cydonium possess a surprisingly large genome of approximately 1.7 pg DNA per haploid set. Taking the high gene density in these sponges into account and considering that predominantly single-copy DNA exists, the gene number of S. domuncula and G. cydonium was estimated to be approximately 300,000. Presumably, the large gene number in the sponge genome is due to regional gene duplication; so far evidence for a transposition in sponges has been presented. Data indicate that only 0.25 % of the total sponge genome comprises CA/TG microsatellites, and until now also no SINEs/transposable elements have been identified. Due to the rapid progress in the field of molecular biology of sponges the application of sponge genes for expression studies by DNA-array techniques (microarray) has become possible. These achievements will be further supported by the systematic analysis of the expressed genome of sponges; the results will be (partially) released (http://spongebase.uni-mainz.de/cgi-bin/blast/blastserver.cgi). In our efforts employing the results from the analysis of the genome to molecular biotechnology, we applied the technique of differential display of mRNA. One example, the effect of silicate on gene expression in S. domuncula, is outlined here. Future results will allow the identification of the genes involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds from sponges [Porifera]. This progress will contribute considerably to a fruitful and fast development in the field of molecular marine biotechnology.

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