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Delineation of Chondrus (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae) in China and the origin of C. crispus inferred from molecular data
Hu, Z.; Critchley, A.T.; Gao, T.; Zeng, X.; Morrell, S.L.; Duan, D. (2007). Delineation of Chondrus (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae) in China and the origin of C. crispus inferred from molecular data. Mar. Biol. Res. 3(3): 145-154.
In: Marine Biology Research. Taylor & Francis: Oslo; Basingstoke. ISSN 1745-1000, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Biogeography; Phylogeny; Taxonomy; Chondrus crispus Stackhouse, 1797 [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Hu, Z.
  • Critchley, A.T.
  • Gao, T.
  • Zeng, X.
  • Morrell, S.L.
  • Duan, D.

    Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained for 18 Chondrus populations collected at 15 sites from eight countries worldwide. Pairwise comparisons with the multiple alignment revealed that intraspecific divergences of ITS sequences ranged from 0.3 to 1.8% in C. crispus Stackhouse (except for the entity SVLH from France) and from 0.0 to 0.6% in C. ocellatus Holmes, whereas interspecific divergences in Chondrus varied from 1.4 to 5.0%. Three phylogenetic methods (neighbour joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) confirmed three main lineages: the North Atlantic lineage containing entities of C. crispus from Canada, France, Germany, England, Portugal, Ireland and Wales; a second lineage comprising three species: C. sp. 1, C. armatus (Harvey) Yamada et Mikami, and C. pinnulatus (Harvey) Okamura from the Northern Pacific; and a third lineage containing just one species: C. ocellatus from the Northern Pacific. Chondrus yendoi Yamada et Mikami separated from other Chondrus species singly. nrDNA ITS data indicate that a previous assignment of C. sp. 2 to Mazzaella japonica (Mikami) Hommersand may be incorrect, and additional evidence is needed to resolve the generic placement of this entity. It is inferred from the nrDNA ITS data that three Chondrus species are presently known in China with two, C. ocellatus and C. nipponicus, in Qingdao and two, C. armatus and C. nipponicus, in Dalian. We hypothesize that the ancestor of North Atlantic C. crispus had a Pacific origin, and that the present distribution of C. crispus in the Atlantic Ocean correlates with a trans-Arctic dispersal and vicariance events associated with Pleistocene glaciation maxima.

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