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Establishing coastal and marine reserves - with the emphasis on fisheries
Lindeboom, H.; Bäck, S. (2005). Establishing coastal and marine reserves - with the emphasis on fisheries, in: Vermaat, J.E. et al. (Ed.) Managing European coasts: past, present and future. pp. 103-117. dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27150-3_5
In: Vermaat, J.E. et al. (Ed.) (2005). Managing European coasts: past, present and future. Environmental Science Series. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 3-540-23454-3. 387 pp., more
In: Environmental Science Series. Springer-Verlag: New York, more

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Keywords
    Coastal environment; Marine fisheries; Marine reserves; Marine

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Abstract
    Marine reserves or protected areas with certain restrictions are formed for several reasons: protection of species or specific life stages, protection of habitats such as spawning, resting or feeding areas, and creation of more natural age composition in populations. Areas are established to prevent continuous impacts of human actions such as certain disturbance of fishing techniques. For scientific research and monitoring purposes marine reserves are indispensable. It is recommended that in marine reserves where fisheries, other destructive human activities and local pollution are forbidden or very limited, scientific research is carried out in order to reveal trends in species composition, abundance and age distribution. These data should be used for comparative studies with non-protected areas, and then be applied to obtain more sustainable use of resources, including optimal production and optimal nature preservation. For successful marine reserves it is necessary to define clear objectives for the closure, to include the stakeholders in the planning process from the beginning, to design proper, manageable and legally controllable boundaries, and to raise awareness and education. The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) includes regulations for establishing monitoring programmes also for protected areas. Regular monitoring and evaluation programs should be executed to see if the objectives are met and to renew the management plans and redesign the areas if necessary.

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