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Observational learning improves predator avoidance in hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles
Arai, T.; Tominaga, O.; Seikai, T.; Masuda, R. (2007). Observational learning improves predator avoidance in hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles, in: Yamashita, Y. et al. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Flatfish Ecology, Part II, held at Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan from 20-25 October 2005. Journal of Sea Research, 58(1): pp. 59-64
In: Yamashita, Y.; Nash, R.D.M.; van der Veer, H.W. (Ed.) (2007). Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Flatfish Ecology, Part II, held at Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan from 20-25 October 2005. Journal of Sea Research, 58(1). Elsevier: Amsterdam. 1-112 pp., more
In: Journal of Sea Research. Elsevier/Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Amsterdam; Den Burg. ISSN 1385-1101, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Arai, T.; Tominaga, O.; Seikai, T.; Masuda, R. (2007). Observational learning improves predator avoidance in hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles. J. Sea Res. 58(1): 59-64. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2007.01.004, more

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Avoidance reactions; Behaviour; Feeding; Learning behaviour; Predator prey interactions; Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Arai, T.
  • Tominaga, O.
  • Seikai, T.
  • Masuda, R., correspondent

Abstract
    The level of importance of learning in the survival of an animal is related to its evolutionary status, environmental demands, and developmental stage. This paper examines the role of learning in predator avoidance of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles. We conditioned flounder juveniles to predation using two different methods: (1) direct exposure to a predator, and (2) allowing juveniles to observe predatory attacks on conspecifics. Predator avoidance performance and feeding behaviour were then compared among predator-exposed, predator-observed and naive individuals. Both predator-exposed and predator-observed fish were better at avoiding a predator than were naive fish when they encountered a predator 6 h after the initial exposure. Although this effect was not significant 24 or 30 h after exposure, reaction distance to a predator was longest in predator-exposed and shortest in naive fish 6, 24 and 30 h after exposure. When fed pellets, predator-exposed and predator-observed fish showed less off-bottom feeding behaviour and their heights of swimming were lower than those of naive fish. We conclude that flounder juveniles are capable of predator conditioning both through direct and observational learning processes.

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