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Retinoid X receptor gene expression and protein content in tissues of the rock shell Thais clavigera
Horiguchi, T.; Nishikawa, T.; Ohta, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Morita, M. (2007). Retinoid X receptor gene expression and protein content in tissues of the rock shell Thais clavigera. Aquat. Toxicol. 84(3): 379-388.
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Gene expression; Imposex; Rocks; Shells; Tributyltin; Reishia clavigera (Küster, 1860) [WoRMS]; INW, Japan, Honshu, Ibaraki Prefect. [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Horiguchi, T.
  • Nishikawa, T.
  • Ohta, Y.
  • Shiraishi, H.
  • Morita, M.

    To elucidate the role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the development of imposex caused by organotin compounds in gastropod molluscs, we investigated RXR gene expression and RXR protein content in various tissues of male and female wild rock shells (Thais clavigera). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry with a commercial antibody against human RXR ? revealed that RXR gene expression was significantly higher in the penises of males and imposex-exhibiting females than in the penis-forming areas of normal females (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Western blotting demonstrated that the antibody could detect rock shell RXR and showed that the male penis had the highest content of RXR protein among the analyzed tissues of males and normal females. Immunohistochemical staining revealed nuclear localization of RXR protein in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the vas deferens and in the interstitial or connective tissues and epidermis of the penis in males and imposex-exhibiting females. RXR could be involved in the mechanism of induction of male-type genitalia (penis and vas deferens) by organotin compounds in female rock shells.

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