|Hemocyte responses of Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, with varying parasite, Perkinsus olseni, severity to toxic-algal exposures|
|Hégaret, H.; da Silva, P.M.; Wikfors, G.H.; Lambert, C.; De Bettignies, T.; Shumway, S.E.; Soudant, P. (2007). Hemocyte responses of Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, with varying parasite, Perkinsus olseni, severity to toxic-algal exposures. Aquat. Toxicol. 84(4): 469-479. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.07.007|
|In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more|
Bivalves; Clams; Dinoflagellates; Marine molluscs; Parasitic infestation; Gymnodinium Stein, 1878 [WoRMS]; Karenia selliformis A.J.Haywood, K.A.Steidinger & L.MacKenzie, 2004 [WoRMS]; Perkinsus olseni Lester & Davis, 1981 [WoRMS]; Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) [WoRMS]; ANE, France, Brittany, Morbihan Gulf [gazetteer]; Marine
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This study assessed the possible combined effects of harmful algae and parasite infection on hemocyte and hemolymph parameters of a bivalve mollusc. Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum, were exposed for 1 week, under controlled laboratory conditions, to bloom concentrations of two cultured dinoflagellates: Karenia selliformis, and Karenia mikimotoi, with demonstrated, sub-lethal, pathological effects upon these bivalves. Each dinoflagellate treatment was added to a basal diet of Chaetoceros neogracile; controls consisted of clams fed only C. neogracile. Hemocyte characteristics measured with flow-cytometric analyses, and agglutination titer, condition index, and prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus olseni, were assessed for individual clams before and after 3 and 6 days of microalgal exposure. Multifactor analysis of variance tests were conducted to determine possible effects of the harmful algae, time of exposure, and P. olseni intensity, as well as interactions between these three factors, upon each physiological variable measured. There was no relationship between P. olseni intensity and hemolymph measures. Both Karenia species, however, had a significant effect upon hemocyte profiles of the clams, and this effect was dependent upon duration of exposure; 3 days of exposure to the dinoflagellates generally was sufficient to resolve the effects on the clams. K. selliformis had a stronger effect than K. mikimotoi, which was intermediate between K. selliformis and clams fed the non-toxic control, C. neogracile. Total hemocyte counts increased in clams exposed to the harmful algae, while the percentage of dead hemocytes, as well as hemocyte size and complexity, decreased. Furthermore, these immunomodulating effects of K. selliformis were significantly more extreme in clams with a high parasite burden, compared with lightly infected clams. This report is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing the combined effects of harmful algae and parasite infection on a physiological function (hemocyte and hemolymph parameters) of a bivalve mollusc. These findings demonstrate that clams maintain hemocyte function when infected with P. olseni, that the clam immune system responds to harmful or toxic algal exposure, and that this response is modified by parasite infection.