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Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data
Andresen, J.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Ueno, D.; Darling, C.; Theobald, N.; Bester, K. (2007). Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 26(6): 1081-1089.
In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Setac Press: New York. ISSN 0730-7268, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    organophosphate flame retardants; personal care compounds; Triclosan;Lake Ontario; North Sea

Authors  Top 
  • Andresen, J.A.
  • Muir, D.C.G.
  • Ueno, D.
  • Darling, C.
  • Theobald, N.
  • Bester, K.

    In the present study, the concentrations and fate of contaminants such as organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers, musk compounds such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk ketone and musk xylene, the bactericide triclosan, as well as the metabolites HHCB-lactone and triclosan-methyl were compared in the aqueous phase of the German Bight (North Sea). The concentrations of these compounds were around 1 to 10 ng/L in nearshore areas, and the concentrations were lower in the more pristine areas. The highest concentrations were determined for tris-(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate in the North Sea with concentration exceeding 10 ng/L even for the offshore samples. The samples contained 1 to 20 ng/L chlorinated organophosphates, approximately 1 ng/L nonchlorinated organophosphates, and 0.3 to 3 ng/L fragrance compounds. Some samples from Lake Ontario (Canada) were analyzed in comparison. Per capita emissions were calculated for both regions. These emissions were compared and turned out to be very similar for the Canadian and German locations. For the North Sea, some observations concerning stability, dilution, and degradation, as well as sources of the respective substances, were performed. These data indicate that the chlorinated organophosphates and some musk fragrances exhibit half lives exceeding the residence times and thus can be considered to be persistent in this ecosystem. In the German Bight, the river Elbe is the dominating source for the more hydrophilic compounds, such as chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants, which are diluted only into the North Sea. However, for the more lipophilic compounds such as the musk fragrances, different input patterns as well as distribution patterns are relevant, though the river Elbe is still a major source of pollution to the German Bight of the North Sea. The data seem to indicate either relevant inputs further west of the sampling area or mobilization from the sediments.

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