|Comparisons of tissue-specific transcription of stress response genes with whole animal endpoints of adverse effect in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) following treatment with copper and esfenvalerate|
|Geist, J.; Werner, I.; Eder, K.J.; Leutenegger, C.M. (2007). Comparisons of tissue-specific transcription of stress response genes with whole animal endpoints of adverse effect in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) following treatment with copper and esfenvalerate. Aquat. Toxicol. 85(1): 28-39. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.07.011|
|In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more|
Behavior; Biomarkers; Contaminants; Contaminants; Contaminants; Sublethal effects; Transcriptome; Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792) [WoRMS]; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
Changes in the gene transcription of stress response genes in resident fish can be powerful biomarkers for the identification of sublethal impacts of environmental stressors on aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we tested the effects of two reference toxicants, copper (Cu) and the pyrethroid insecticide esfenvalerate [(S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyrate], on lethal (mortality) and sublethal endpoints (growth, swimming behavior, transcription levels of stress response genes) in juvenile (81–90-day-old) striped bass (Morone saxatilis). We established cellular stress response markers for proteotoxicity (HSP70, HSP90), phase I detoxification mechanism (CYP1A1), metal-binding (metallothionein), as well as immune-function and pathogen-defense (TGF-β, Mx-protein, nRAMP). Quantitative real-time TaqMan® PCR was used to examine tissue-specific changes in the transcriptome of liver, spleen, white muscle, anterior kidney and gills after 7-day Cu exposures and 24-h esfenvalerate exposures. On the transcriptome level, exposure to Cu showed strongest effects on the transcription of metallothionein in spleen tissue, causing a 4-fold increase of mRNA at 42 ppb total Cu and a 10-fold increase at 160 ppb Cu. Exposure to Cu also caused significant tissue-specific changes in gene transcription for immune-system related genes. Esfenvalerate exposure had tissue-specific effects on the transcription of HSP70, HSP90 and CYP1A1. The most significant effects were detected in liver tissue after exposure to 0.64 μg/L esfenvalerate.
Our results show that the stress response at the transcriptome level is a more sensitive indicator for Cu and esfenvalerate exposures at low concentrations than swimming behavior, growth or mortality. The accuracy of studies on quantitative changes in the transcriptome can benefit from an initial evaluation or the inclusion of several different tissues and the use of multiple housekeeping genes.