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Learning about danger: chemical alarm cues and the assessment of predation risk by fishes
Brown, G.E.; Chivers, D.P. (2006). Learning about danger: chemical alarm cues and the assessment of predation risk by fishes, in: Brown, C. et al. (Ed.) Fish cognition and behavior. Fish and Aquatic Resources Series, 11: pp. 49-69
In: Brown, C.; Laland, K.N.; Krause, J. (Ed.) (2006). Fish cognition and behavior. Fish and Aquatic Resources Series, 11. Blackwell Publishing: Oxford. ISBN 978-1-4051-3429-3. XVIII, 328 pp., more
In: Pitcher, T.J. (Ed.) Fish and Aquatic Resources Series. Blackwell Science: Oxford. ISSN 1746-2606, more

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Keywords
    Aquaculture; Avoidance reactions; Copper; Food organisms; Interspecific relationships; Learning behaviour; Predation; Reproductive behaviour; Risks; Pisces [WoRMS]; Argentina, Buenos Aire, Lima [Marine Regions]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Brown, G.E.
  • Chivers, D.P.

Abstract
    Predation is a constant threat faced by most prey individuals (Lima & Dill 1990), shaping an individual's behaviour, morphology and life history traits. As a result, there exists strong selection pressure for the early detection and avoidance of potential predation threats. However, predator avoidance has the potential to be very costly, as it reduces time and energy available for numerous other fitness-related behaviour patterns such as foraging, mating and territorial defence (Godin & Smith 1988; Sih 1992) or forcing prey to utilize suboptimal habitats (Gotceitas & Brown 1993), leading to a potential reduction in energy intake (Lima & Dill 1990). Thus, an individual's response to predation pressure can be seen as a series of threat-sensitive trade-offs between the benefits of predator avoidance and those of a suite of other fitness related activities (Lima & Dill 1990; Lima & Bednekoff 1999). Prey capable of reliably assessing local predation risk should be at a selective advantage, as they would be able to balance these conflicting benefits.

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