|Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production|
|Crab, R.; Avnimelech, Y.; Defoirdt, T.; Bossier, P.; Verstraete, W. (2007). Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production. Aquaculture 270(1-4): 1-14. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.05.006|
|In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0044-8486, more|
Biofilters; Periphyton; Sustainability; Sustainability; Sustainability; Water quality; Marine
water quality; Sustainability; biofilters; periphyton; bio-flocs technology; C; N ratio
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As the aquaculture industry intensively develops, its environmental impact increases. Discharges from aquaculture deteriorate the receiving environment and the need for fishmeal and fish oil for fish feed production increases. Rotating biological contactors, trickling filters, bead filters and fluidized sand biofilters are conventionally used in intensive aquaculture systems to remove nitrogen from culture water. Besides these conventional water treatment systems, there are other possible modi operandi to recycle aquaculture water and simultaneously produce fish feed. These double-purpose techniques are the periphyton treatment technique, which is applicable to extensive systems, and the proteinaceous bio-flocs technology, which can be used in extensive as well as in intensive systems. In addition to maintenance of good water quality, both techniques provide an inexpensive feed source and a higher efficiency of nutrient conversion of feed. The bio-flocs technology has the advantage over the other techniques that it is relatively inexpensive; this makes it an economically viable approach for sustainable aquaculture.