|Assessing anti-predatory chemical defences among ten eastern Mediterranean sponges|Sokolover, N.; Ilan, M. (2007). Assessing anti-predatory chemical defences among ten eastern Mediterranean sponges. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. Spec. Issue 87(6): 1785-1790. dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407057967
In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press/Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom: Cambridge. ISSN 0025-3154, more
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The palatability of organic chemical extracts from ten of the most abundant sponge species along the Israeli (shallow) coast, eastern Mediterranean Sea (Axinella sp., Axinella polypoides, Chondrilla nucula, Ircinia sp., Psammocinia sp. 1, Psammocinia sp. 2, Psammocinia sp. 3, Psammocinia sp. 4, Sarcotragus sp. and Tetilla sp.) was tested. To examine the generality of the phenomenon, it was evaluated with two types of potential predators, a fish and a gastropod. It was determined that the extracts of only two species (Psammocinia sp. 1 and Psammocinia sp. 3) deterred feeding of the omnivorous ornate Mediterranean wrasse Thalassoma pavo. On the other hand, extracts of five other sponges (Chondrilla nucula, Axinella sp., Ircinia sp., Sarcotragus sp. and Psammocinia sp. 2) were non-palatable to the omnivorous gastropod Strombus persicus (the extracts that deterred the fish did not deter the gastropod and vice versa). We also determined the capacity of extracts from six Red Sea sponges to deter T. pavo, and compared it with these extracts' effect on the Red Sea wrasse T. klunzingeri. All the extracts that deterred the Red Sea wrasse (from Amphimedon chloros, Crella cyatophora, Negombata magnifica and Theonella swinhoei) were also non-palatable to the Mediterranean wrasse. In addition to these four species, also Diacarnus erythraenus deterred Thalassoma pavo while being palatable to T. klunzingeri, whereas food pellets with extracts of Niphates rowi were eaten by both wrasse species.