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The impact and importance of production in polynyas to top-trophic predators: three case histories
Karnovsky, N.; Ainley, D.G.; Lee, P. (2007). The impact and importance of production in polynyas to top-trophic predators: three case histories, in: Smith Jr., W.O. et al. (Ed.) Polynyas: windows to the world. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 74: pp. 391-410
In: Smith Jr., W.O.; Barber, D.G. (Ed.) (2007). Polynyas: windows to the world. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 74. Elsevier: Amsterdam. xv, 458 pp., more
In: Elsevier Oceanography Series. Elsevier: Oxford; New york; Amsterdam. ISSN 0422-9894, more

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Dynamical Oceanography DYN [131846]

Keywords
    Biological production; Polynyas; Predators; Trophic relationships; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Karnovsky, N.
  • Ainley, D.G.
  • Lee, P.

Abstract
    Polynyas in both the Arctic and Antarctic are known to be sites of substantial accumulations of toptrophic predators. Three polynyas (the Ross Sea polynya, the North Water polynya, and the Northeast Water polynya) are described in detail with regard to the distribution and activities of birds and marine mammals. The comparison shows that a substantial variation occurs both spatially and temporally among polynyas, but confirms that these regions are critical and active sites of material and energy transfer in polar systems.

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