|Symbiotic marine bacteria chemically defend crustacean embryos from a pathogenic fungus|
|Gil-Turnes, M.S.; Hay, M.E.; Fenical, W. (1989). Symbiotic marine bacteria chemically defend crustacean embryos from a pathogenic fungus. Science (Wash.) 246(4926): 116-118|
|In: Science (Washington). American Association for the Advancement of Science: Washington DC. ISSN 0036-8075, more|
Embryos of the shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus are remarkably resistant to infection by the fungus Lagenidium callinectes, a recognized pathogen of many crustaceans. An Alteromonas sp. bacterial strain consistently isolated from the surface of the embryos, produces 2,3-indolinedione (isatin), a compound that inhibits the pathogenic fungus. If exposed to the fungus, bacteria-free embryos quickly die, whereas similar embryos reinoculated with the bacteria or treated only with 2,3-indolinedione live well. The commensal Alteromonas sp. bacteria protect shrimp embryos from fungal infection by producing and liberating the antifungal metabolite 2,3-indolinedione.