|Application of steam distillation in the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from dosing experiments with crude oil|
Donkin, P.; Evans, S.V. (1984). Application of steam distillation in the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from dosing experiments with crude oil. Anal. Chim. Acta 156: 207-219
In: Analytica Chimica Acta. Elsevier: New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0003-2670, more
Aquatic organisms; Bioaccumulation; Hydrocarbons; Methodology; Petroleum; Pollution detection; Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Marine
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Steam distillation is shown to provide recoveries in excess of 80% for petroleum hydrocarbons in the volatility range encompassed by toluene and pyrene from water and mussel tissues. These recoveries were achieved with an apparatus based on Dean and Stark water estimators which are commercially available at low cost. Saponification is shown to aid hydrocarbon recovery from mussel tissue. The steam distillates derived from tissues were analysed by u.v. spectrophotometry after clean-up on alumina, or directly by gas-liquid chromatography or normal- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Steam distillates of water did not require prior clean-up. Normal-phase h.p.l.c. of steam distillates on an amino-cyano phase provided a particularly convenient method for petroleum-derived aromatic hydrocarbons. Preliminary results suggest that they may be used also in environmental monitoring of hydrocarbons.