|Chemical fractionation at the air/sea interface|
Duce, R.A.; Hoffman, E.J. (1976). Chemical fractionation at the air/sea interface. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 4: 187-228
In: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, Calif.,. ISSN 0084-6597, more
Aerosols; Air-water interface; Marine
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This review evaluates the data for common trace substances present in marine aerosols in an attempt to ascertain whether their source may be the ocean or some other natural or anthropogenic process. The evaluation of the occurrence and extent of chemical fractionation of various substances during the production of atmospheric sea salt particles by bursting bubbles is difficult. 2 factors are perhaps most responsible for this difficulty: (1) Atmospheric particles that are not produced by the ocean but may contribute significantly to the concn of a number of trace substances in the marine aerosol are present throughout the atmosphere over the world ocean, e. g. background aerosol and mineral dust. Care in the selection of sampling sites and the collection of samples may greatly minimize the effects of non-sea salt aerosols. (2) Gaseous forms of many of the trace substances of interest in the particles coexist in the marine atmosphere, and extensive gas-particle exchange is likely, e. g. halogens, sulfate, nitrogen compounds, boron, organic carbon and some trace metals such as Se, Hg, As, etc. Based on the available data, the only substances having positive enrichments of more than a few percent in the atmosphere that can be clearly ascribed to chemical fractionation occurring during sea salt particle production are I, PO43- , probably organic nitrogen and organic carbon, and possibly some heavy metals and K in biologically productive waters. The evidence suggests that the other substances discussed either show no enrichment in the environment, or if an enrichment is observed, it is apparently due to the presence of particles with a nonmarine source or to gas /particle interactions.