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Crustacean biogeography of the Late Middle Miocene Middle Eastern landbridge
Por, F.D. (1986). Crustacean biogeography of the Late Middle Miocene Middle Eastern landbridge, in: Gore, R.H. et al. Crustacean biogeography. Crustacean Issues, 4: pp. 69-84
In: Gore, R.H.; Heck, K.L. (1986). Crustacean biogeography. Crustacean Issues, 4. A.A. Balkema: Rotterdam, The Netherlands [etc.]. ISBN 90-6191-593-7. 292 pp., more
In: Schram, F.R. (Ed.) Crustacean Issues. Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis: Rotterdam. ISSN 0168-6356, more

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    VLIZ: Crustacea [12743]


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  • Por, F.D.

    The Middle East is an area of complex tectonic history through time, and this complexity is reflected in the biogeography of the region. Essentially, six historico-biogeographical 'strata' can be recognized among the crustaceans which currently inhabit the region. These are: 1) subterranean and interstitial forms which appear to extend back to the Permo-Triassic when Pangaea was still intact; 2) subterranean and interstitial species with an origin in the Mesozoic when the Tethys Sea was present; 3) euryhaline species related to the Miocene Messinian salinity crisis; 4) marine forms which originated with the Pliocene recolonization of the Mediterranean and Red Seas; 5) wet-tropical and wet-temperate species which migrated through adjacent river systems during the Pleistocene climatic fluctuations; and 6) Lessepsian migrants between the Mediterranean and Red Seas after the opening of the Suez Canal.

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