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Influence of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and pH on copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare)
Lock, K.; Criel, P.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Van Eeckhout, H.; Janssen, C.R. (2007). Influence of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and pH on copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 68(2): 299-304
In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Academic Press/Elsevier: Amsterdam, Netherlands etc.. ISSN 0147-6513, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Bioavailability; Plants; Risk assessment; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Lock, K., more
  • Criel, P.
  • De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.
  • Van Eeckhout, H., more
  • Janssen, C.R., more

Abstract
    The extent to which Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ ions and pH independently influence copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) was assessed by measuring root growth in nutrient solutions. Increased Ca2+ activity resulted in a sixfold decrease in EC50Cu2+ values, while a positive relationship between the cation activity and the EC50 was expected. Increased Mg2+ activity resulted in a twofold increase in EC50Cu2+ values. Na+, K+ and H+ activities did not significantly affect Cu2+ toxicity. The obtained results indicated that competition for binding sites between Cu2+ and cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and H+ is not an important factor in determining Cu2+ toxicity to H. vulgare. However, the EC50s could, with one exception, be predicted within a factor three based on the free Cu2+ activity, indicating that the free Cu2+ activity cannot only be used to predict metal toxicity to aquatic, but also to terrestrial organisms.

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