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Formation of boldenone and boldenone-analogues by maggots of Lucilia sericata
Verheyden, K.; Noppe, H.; Mortier, V.; Vercruysse, J.; Claerebout, E.; Van Immerseel, E.; Janssen, C.R.; De Brabander, H.F. (2007). Formation of boldenone and boldenone-analogues by maggots of Lucilia sericata. Anal. Chim. Acta 586(1-2): 163-170
In: Analytica Chimica Acta. Elsevier: New York; Amsterdam. ISSN 0003-2670, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Brine; Drugs; Hormones; Precursors; Steroids; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Verheyden, K.
  • Noppe, H., more
  • Mortier, V.
  • Vercruysse, J.
  • Claerebout, E.
  • Van Immerseel, E.
  • Janssen, C.R., more
  • De Brabander, H.F., more

Abstract
    Current evidence suggests that neo formation of the anabolic steroid boldenone (androsta-1,4-diene-17-ol-3-one) occurs in calves' faecal material, making it difficult to distinguish between illegally administered boldenone and its potential endogenous presence. This strengthens the urgent need to elucidate the pathway leading to boldenone formation. In our laboratory, the invertebrate Neomysis integer (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was used since 2004 as an alternative model for the partial replacement of vertebrate animals in metabolisation studies with illegal growth promotors and veterinary drugs, e.g. boldenone. The present study evaluates the metabolic capacity of other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and maggots of the greenbottle fly Lucilia sericata. The first results indicate that maggots of L. sericata are able to convert phytosterols and -stanols, nowadays in substantial amounts added to animal feed, into androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), the precursor of boldenone, at a yield of 0.10-0.14% (p<0.001, significance compared to endogenous excretion of maggots) but not to boldenone itself. Furthermore, beta-testosterone, an endogenous hormone, was transformed into androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AED), ADD and beta-boldenone at a significant (p<0.001, significance compared to endogenous excretion of maggots) yield of circa 13%, 0.80% and 2.2%, respectively. In future studies these results are of value to further evaluate the use of maggots of L. sericata as an invertebrate model in metabolisation studies.

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