|Environmental risk assessment of metals: tools for incorporating bioavailability|
Janssen, C.R.; Heijerick, D.G.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Allen, H.E. (2003). Environmental risk assessment of metals: tools for incorporating bioavailability. Environ. Int. 28(8): 793-800
In: Environment International. Pergamon: New York. ISSN 0160-4120, more
Bioavailability; Copper; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Risk assessment; Speciation; Zinc; Animalia [WoRMS]; Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 [WoRMS]; Fresh water
|Authors|| || Top |
- Janssen, C.R., more
- Heijerick, D.G., more
- De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.
- Allen, H.E.
In this paper, some of the main processes and parameters which affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment and its implications for metal risk assessment procedures will be discussed. It has become clear that, besides chemical processes (speciation, complexation), attention should also be given to physiological aspects for predicting metal toxicity. The development of biotic ligand models (BLMs), which combine speciation models with more biologically oriented models (e.g. GSIM), has offered an answer to this need. The various BLMs which have been developed and/or refined for a number of metals (e.g. Cu, Ag, Zn) and species (algae, crustaceans, fish) are discussed here. Finally, the potential of the BLM approach is illustrated through a theoretical exercise in which chronic zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna is predicted in three regions, taking the physico-chemical characteristics of these areas into account.