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Influence of aging on copper bioavailability in soils
Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R. (2003). Influence of aging on copper bioavailability in soils. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(5): 1162-1166
In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Setac Press: New York. ISSN 0730-7268, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Ecotoxicology; Animalia [WoRMS]; Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837 [WoRMS]

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Abstract
    Because of long-term chemical processes, metal bioavailability in field soils decreases with time. Metal toxicity may, therefore, be overestimated if toxicity data with freshly spiked soils are used to derive soil quality criteria, a current practice. In the present study, effects of the long-term processes, called aging, on copper partitioning and ecotoxicity are investigated. Twenty-five field soils contaminated by copper runoff from bronze statues and 25 uncontaminated control soils sampled at 5-m distance from these statues were collected in Flanders (Belgium). The soils were selected so that parameters affecting copper bioavailability (pH, cation-exchange capacity, organic matter content, etc.) varied considerably. To assess the effect of aging on copper toxicity, control soils were spiked at total copper concentrations comparable to those of historically contaminated soils. Pore-water copper concentrations and 0.01 M CaCl2-extracted copper concentrations were significantly higher in freshly spiked soils compared to contaminated field soils. However, this could be a pH effect, because pH decreased after spiking. Acute toxicity to Enchytraeus albidus (14 d) as well as chronic toxicity to Folsomia candida (28-d reproduction) and Trifolium pratense (14-d growth) indicated a dose-response relationship between copper toxicity and pore-water copper concentration or the CaCl2-extracted copper fraction.

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