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Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida
Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R. (2003). Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida. Chemosphere 53(8): 851-856
In: Chemosphere. Elsevier: Oxford. ISSN 0045-6535, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Compost; Ecotoxicology; Heavy metals; Interstitial water; Soil pollution; Toxicity; Uptake; Zinc; Zinc chlorides; Zinc oxide; Animalia [WoRMS]; Annelida [WoRMS]; Arthropoda [WoRMS]; Collembola [WoRMS]; Enchytraeidae Vejdovský, 1879 [WoRMS]; Enchytraeus albidus Henle, 1837 [WoRMS]; Insecta [WoRMS]; Invertebrata; Isotomidae [WoRMS]; Oligochaeta [WoRMS]

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Abstract
    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail Folsomia candida was lower compared to zinc oxide and zinc powder. However, when expressed on the basis of pore water concentrations or calcium chloride extracted fractions, acute toxicity was higher for zinc salt, which indicated that dermal uptake via the pore water is not the only route of uptake. Chronic toxicity of zinc salt, zinc oxide and zinc powder was similar when based on total concentrations in the soil which again indicates that the pore water route of uptake is not the only route of exposure but that oral uptake is also important.

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