|Bioavailability of zinc in runoff water from roofing materials|
Heijerick, D.G.; Janssen, C.R.; Karlen, C.; Wallinder, IO.; Leygraf, C. (2002). Bioavailability of zinc in runoff water from roofing materials. Chemosphere 47(10): 1073-1080
In: Chemosphere. Elsevier: Oxford. ISSN 0045-6535, more
Biosensors; Runoff; Toxicity; Zinc; Animalia [WoRMS]; Fresh water
|Authors|| || Top |
- Heijerick, D.G., more
- Janssen, C.R., more
- Karlen, C.
- Wallinder, IO.
- Leygraf, C.
Corrosion and runoff from zinc-coated materials and outdoor structures is an important source for the dispersion of zinc in the environment. Being part of a large inter-disciplinary research project, this study presents the bioavailability of zinc in runoff water immediately after release from the surface of 15 different commercially available zinc-based materials exposed to the urban environment of Stockholm, Sweden. Runoff water was analysed chemically and evaluated for its possible environmental impact, using both a biosensor test with the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus (Biomet) and the conventional 72 h growth inhibition test with the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. Chemical speciation modelling revealed that most zinc (94.3-99.9%) was present as the free Zn ion, the most bioavailable speciation form. These findings were confirmed by the results of the biosensor test (Biomet) which indicated that all zinc was indeed bioavailable. Analysis of the ecotoxicity data also suggested that the observed toxic effects were due to the presence of Zn2+ ions. Finally, regression analysis showed that, for this type of runoff samples, the rapid screening biosensor was capable of predicting (a) the total amount of zinc present in the runoff samples (R2 of 0.93-0.98; p < 0.05) and (b) the observed 72 h-EbC50s (R2 of 0.69-0.97; p < 0.05).