|Lipids and life strategy of Arctic Calanus|In: Marine Biology Research. Taylor & Francis: Oslo; Basingstoke. ISSN 1745-1000, more
Algal blooms; Diatoms; Dominance; Energy flux; Geographical distribution; Lipids; Marine crustaceans; Migrations; Primary production; Bacillariophyceae [WoRMS]; Calanoida [WoRMS]; Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1770) [WoRMS]; Calanus glacialis Jaschnov, 1955 [WoRMS]; Copepoda [WoRMS]; Dinophyceae [WoRMS]; PNE, Arctic [Marine Regions]; Marine
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- Falk-Petersen, S., more
- Mayzaud, P., more
- Kattner, G.
- Sargent, J.R.
The three Arctic Calanus species, C. finmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1765), C. glacialis (Jaschov, 1955), and C. hyperboreus, are the most important herbivores in Arctic seas in terms of species biomass. They play a key role in the lipid-based energy flux in the Arctic, converting low-energy carbohydrates and proteins in ice algae and phytoplankton into high-energy wax esters. In this paper we review the over-wintering strategy, seasonal migration, stage development, life span, feeding strategy, body size, lipid biochemistry and the geographic distribution of the three dominant Calanus species in Arctic waters. We then relate these parameters to other biotic and abiotic factors, such as the timing of the Arctic phytoplankton and ice algae bloom, sea ice cover and climate variability. We also present new data on fatty acid and fatty alcohol content in the three Calanus species in addition to reviewing the available literature on these topics. These data are analysed for species homogeneity and geographic grouping. The dominance of diatom fatty acid trophic markers in the lipids of Calanus underpins the importance of diatoms as Arctic primary producers, even if dinoflagellates and Phaeocystis pouchetii can also be important food sources for the calanoid copepods. We conclude that the Arctic Calanus species are herbivores, engineered to feed on the Arctic bloom, and that the timing of the bloom is the most important factor in determining the life strategies of the individual species.