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XBT profilers for operational purposes: application and validation in real exercises
Machín, F.; Emelianov, M.; Rodríguez, P.; García-Ladona, E.; Menéndez, J.; Salat, J. (2008). XBT profilers for operational purposes: application and validation in real exercises. Sci. Mar. (Barc.) 72(4): 779-799. dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2008.72n4779
In: Scientia Marina (Barcelona). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Institut de Ciènces del Mar: Barcelona. ISSN 0214-8358, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Inverse method; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Machín, F.
  • Emelianov, M.
  • Rodríguez, P.
  • García-Ladona, E.
  • Menéndez, J.
  • Salat, J.

Abstract
    A methodology for recovering salinity from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data is presented. The procedure exploits climatological relationships between temperature, salinity and depth to build regional characteristic curves by fitting a polynomial function that minimises both the variance of residuals and unknowns. Hence, salinity is computed and recovered as a function of temperature and depth. Empirical formula are provided to recover the salinity field from temperature-depth measurements for the Cantabrian Sea and Galician Area. The method is validated and applied in the context of two marine rescue exercises carried out in the Bay of Biscay close to the north coast of Spain and in the Finisterre region, where a series of XBT and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles were acquired during fast samplings. The results agree reasonably well with independent data in terms of the spatial structure, with the largest errors in the upper 100 m of the ocean and at intermediate levels. The first diagnoses of the surface geostrophic velocity fields obtained through the salinity reconstruction are coherent and may help in rescue and safety operations during marine emergencies. Hence, we recommend that a technical unit should consider this kind of expandable sampling strategy with both XBT and XCTD data during marine emergencies, since it provides useful and comprehensive information rapidly with minimal interference by means of formal operations on board search and rescue ships.

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