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Roles of calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in flagellar motility regulation in the coral Acropora digitifera
Morita, M.; Iguchi, A.; Takemura, A. (2009). Roles of calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in flagellar motility regulation in the coral Acropora digitifera. Mar. Biotechnol. 11(1): 118-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-008-9127-4
In: Marine Biotechnology. Springer-Verlag: New York. ISSN 1436-2228, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Flagellar motility; Sperm; Coral; Chemotaxis; Protein phosphorylation;Calcium-binding proteins

Authors  Top 
  • Morita, M.
  • Iguchi, A.
  • Takemura, A.

Abstract
    In the corals Acropora spp., eggs secrete substances that induce sperm motility regulation. An elevation of intracellular pH ([pH]i) and a regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) are involved in the sperm motility regulation cascade. However, the detailed molecular aspects of flagellar motility regulation have not been fully demonstrated in Acropora. In this study, we determined the presence and roles of both calmodulin (CaM) and calcium/calmodulin dependent-protein kinase (CaMK) in the sperm flagellar motility regulation of Acropora. A Ca-45(2+)-overlay assay and an immunoblot analysis showed that sperm contain an acidic 16-kDa protein that was CaM, and an immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of CaMK in coral sperm. In addition, a specific inhibitor of CaMK, KN-93, and a CaM antagonist, W-7, inhibited sperm motility activation induced by NH4Cl treatment. NH4Cl treatment causes an increase in intracellular [pH] i of sperm, suggesting that CaM and CaMK are involved in sperm motility initiation caused by an increase in [pH]i. The involvement of CaM and CaMK in motility regulation in coral highlights the importance of these molecules throughout the animal kingdom.

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